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A thermodynamic model of nickel smelting and direct high ,

A thermodynamic model has been developed to predict the distribution behavior of Ni, Cu, Co, Fe, S, As, Sb, and Bi in the Outokumpu flash-smelting process, the Outokumpu direct high-grade matte smelting process, and the INCO flash-smelting process In this model, as many as 16 elements Ni, Cu, Co, Fe, As, Sb, Bi, S, O, Al, Ca, Mg, Si, N, C, and H are considered, and ,...

OUTOTEC SMELTING SOLUTIONS FOR THE PGM INDUSTRY

Outotec Flash Smelting Process The Outotec Direct Nickel Flash Smelting Process was first implemented at Harjavalta Smelter in Finland Simultaneously with the adoption of the new process, the nickel production was doubled The entire target of the project was to improve the profitability, cut sulphur dioxide emissions, improve the...

The Beneficial Effects of Feeding Dry Copper Concentrate ,

The smelting of wet feed needs additional oxygen-enriched air for the combustion of fuel, which dilutes the SO2 produced DRYING PROCESSES AND EQUIPMENT Development in Copper-Concentrate Drying Processes to dry concentrate have developed in recent decad Starting from direct-heated dryers such as rotary-drum dryers and flash dryers, drying...

Copper and Nickel Refractory Products Resco Products

Flash Continuous Smelting Furnace Typically requiring higher quality refractories like Direct-bonded, pre-reacted 50-60 MgO basic brick Krilex 50 CU and Krilex 621-2 are recommended Copper Converters Environment contains intermediate to high-temperature thermal cycling and a very corrosive slag of iron oxide...

List of Publications Flash and Bath Smelting

Evaluation of Nickel Flash Smelting Through Piloting and Simulation SR Varnas, N Kemori, PTL Koh Metallurgical and Materials Transaction B, 29B 1998 1329-1343 Abstract external link Full Paper avail for purchase Numerical Modelling of Combustion in a Zinc Flash Smelter PTL Koh, TV Nguyen, FRA Jorgensen...

PDF Battery Scrap and Biochar Utilization for Improved ,

Cobalt is a critical, high-value metal used extensively in batteries and other sustainable technologi To secure its supply in future, it is utmost important to recover cobalt efficiently from industrial wastes and recycled End-of-Life batteri...

What Is Nickel Smelting? with picture

Alex Newth Nickel ore must melt until it becomes a product known as liquid matte, which is usually around 45 percent nickel Nickel smelting is the process that nickel ore goes through to eventually remove impurities and leave just the nickel metal While the ores can come from different stones and sources, they have two categories lateritic, or rocks found in tropical ,...

THE STATE OF THE ART IN NICKEL SMELTING DIRECT ,

T Mäkinen and P Taskinen, Physical chemistry of direct nickel matte smelting Paper presented at 8 th International Flash Smelting Congress, Tucson and Salt Lake City USA , 14 -18 October, 1996...

Nickel smelting, producing

Flash smelting Flash smelting Finnish Liekkisulatus is a smelting process for sulfur-containing ores including chalcopyrite The process was developed by Outokumpu in Finland and first applied at the Harjavalta plant in 1949 for smelting copper ore It has also been adapted for nickel and lead production...

Integrated Battery Scrap Recycling and Nickel Slag ,

The direct Outotec previously Outokumpu nickel flash smelting DON technology is one of the prevailing processes for nickel smelting In the DON process, dried nickel concentrate is fed to a flash smelting furnace FSF , from which a matte and slag are obtained The high-nickel, low-iron matte is further refined to recover valuables 13,14,15...

State of the art in nickel smelting direct Outokumpu ,

Jul 18, 2013 0183 32 In the DON process, high grade nickel matte of low iron content is produced in the flash smelting furnace directly without subsequent converting The metal values in the smelting slag are recovered in an electric furnace as an iron containing Ni matte...

Environmental Guidelines for Nickel Smelting and Refining

flash smelting Flash smelting is the most common process but electric smelting is used for more complex raw materials when increased flexibility is needed Both processes use dried concentrat Electric smelting requires a roasting step ahead of the smelter to reduce sulfur content and volatil Older nickel smelting processes, such as blast or...

Outotec Flash Smelting Technology

Direct Blister Flash Smelting is a natural choice for higher-grade copper concentrates due to its lower capital investment costs Outotec Direct Nickel Flash Smelting DON This process enables high-grade nickel matte to be produced using a single flash smelting furnace It allows higher recovery...

Phase chemical composition of slag from a direct nickel ,

During the recovery of base metals from the Bushveld Igneous Complex ores, South Africa, a two-stage process is used to ensure complete recovery of nickel from the ore A nickel flash smelting furnace is initially used to obtain the valuable metal but the loss of n...

Direct Nickel Flash Smelting

Direct Nickel Flash Smelting - Free download as Word Doc doc / docx , PDF File pdf , Text File txt or read online for free...

Mathematical modelling and numerical optimization of ,

May 01, 2021 0183 32 In the past decades, the flash furnaces have been widely used, producing more than 50 of copper and 70 of nickel in China High productivity is one of the outstanding advantages of the flash smelting technology...

Phase chemical composition of slag from a direct nickel ,

Nov 14, 2012 0183 32 During the recovery of base metals from the Bushveld Igneous Complex ores, South Africa, a two-stage process is used to ensure complete recovery of nickel from the ore A nickel flash smelting furnace is initially used to obtain the valuable metal but the loss of nickel in the slag amounts to about 4 and thus an electric slag-cleaning furnace has to be ,...

ENVIRONMENTAL LOAD OF THE COPPER AND NICKEL ,

direct Outokumpu nickel flash smelting, FSF = flash smelting furnace, EF = electric fur-nace, ESP = electrostatic precipitator, WHB = waste heat boiler The SO B2 B from copper and nickel production lines recovered and treated to make either liquid SO B2 B or H B2 BSO B4 B is introduced in Figure 5 The ma in reactions of sulphuric acid manu-...

Phase chemical composition of slag from a direct nickel ,

A nickel flash smelting furnace is initially used to obtain the valuable metal but the loss of nickel in the slag amounts to about 4 and thus an electric slag-cleaning furnace has to be subsequently used to reduce the loss of the valuable metal to ,...

123 Primary Copper Smelting

Flash furnace smelting combines the operations of roasting and smelting to produce a high-grade copper matte from concentrates and flux In flash smelting, dried ore concentrates and finely ground fluxes are injected together with oxygen and preheated air or a mixture of both , into a furnace maintained at approximately 1000 176 C 1830 176 F...

Oxygen Pyrometallurgy at Copper Cliff

The Development of Oxygen Flash Smelting The first autogenous oxygen flash-smelting laboratory experiments were conducted in a small horizontal, sheet metal-enclosed, refractory-lined furnace Dry sulfide concentrates and flux were injected into the preheated unit using 995 O 2 cylinder oxygen...

Combustion in flash smelting furnaces Semantic Scholar

The reaction shaft is the heart of a flash smelter Current knowledge of the combustion of concentrate and ancillary fuels coal, oil, and gas in flash smelter shafts comes from laboratory studies, plant measurements, and physical and mathematical modeling The latter is particularly useful when considering the complications of two-phase flow of particles and gas and ,...

Matome Tsholetsa Malema, BEng Hons , PGDip, Executive MBA ,

Operational responsibility for a 120 tph Copper/Nickel/Cobalt Flash Smelting Furnace and associated facilities such as Cooling Towers, heat exchangers and interfacing with a 9tph APL Oxygen Plant, 9MVA electric furnaces, Waste Heat Boiler, Coal and Drying plants, Pierce Smith Converters and a Converter Slag Cleaning Vessel...

Nickel Flash Smelting Total Materia Article

Using nickel flash smelting technology it is possible to process sulfide nickel concentrate and produce nickel matte and slag in a relatively efficient process Any materials resulting as smelting and converting slags are recirculated in the electric furnace and recovered where possible as nickel matte Nickel Ni is a silvery-white, hard metal...

A thermodynamic model of nickel smelting and direct high ,

Apr 11, 2001 0183 32 A thermodynamic model has been developed to predict the distribution behavior of Ni, Cu, Co, Fe, S, As, Sb, and Bi in the Outokumpu flash-smelting process, the Outokumpu direct high-grade matte smelting process, and the INCO flash-smelting process In this model, as many as 16 elements Ni, Cu, Co, Fe, As, Sb, Bi, S, O, Al, Ca, Mg, Si, N, C, and H are ,...